Opthalmoscopy (fundoscopy) – Examination of the retina


Opthalmoscopy, also known as fundoscopy is a method used to examine the retina.

Test procedure:

A fundoscopic examination is performed in a darkened room. Firstly determine the location of the retina by directing the opthalmoscope at fifteen degrees from the center of the eye and following the red light reflex, until you come across the retina.

Test findings (including Positive & Negative results):

 As the examiner you ought to be looking out for signs of abnormal cup to disc ratio, oedema of the optic disc, arterio-venous nicking, cotton wool spots, emboli and infarcts, Roth spots, and copper wire deformities, hard exudates, angiogenesis.


High risk patients such as diabetics, those suffering from cardiovascular pathologies, the elderly, patients suffering from hypercholesterolaemia require frequent check-ups.

The detecting of any abnormality during a fundoscopic examination requires referral to a specialist.