Reduced diaphragmatic excursion / expansion / descend

DEFNITION: The evaluation of the expansion or descend of the diaphragm on full inspiration. CAUSES: Reduced diaphragmatic expansion may have local or distal aetiologies. Local aetiologies include muscle spasm of the diaphragm (sub-phrenic absence, gastric irritation, cardiac and pericardial associations, perforating ulcers, hernias and other causes. Distal causes include lesions of the phrenic nerve which […]

Pleural effusion and shifted mediastinum

DEFINITION: A condition where an abnormal amount of fluid accumulates in inter-pleural space (the potential space between the visceral and parietal membranes). Usually this is serous fluid but can also be blood and rarely other types of fluids. CAUSES: In most cases the cause of the fluid accumulation is due to heart failure. Other causes […]

Enlarged supraclavicular lymph nodes – lymphadenopathy

DEFINITION: Lymphadenopathy is a term implying an abnormal or diseased state of the lymph nodes. CAUSES: The supraclavicular lymph nodes are located above the clavicles in the supraclavicular fossa. They drain intrathoracic structures including the lungs and part of the gastric region. The left supraclavicular lymph nodes drain the left lungs and the lower lobe […]

Bronchoconstriction with mucous and Inflammation

DEFINITION: Bronchoconstriction is a reversible or functional narrowing of the bronchioles. CAUSES: Often as a result of asthma allergies, or other irritants. The narrowing may be as a result of smooth muscle constriction or from the secretion and accumulation of mucus. It can also be brought on by exposure to extreme and fast temperature changes […]

Percussion of the Thorax

Definition: Percussion of the thorax attempts to examine the quality of intra-thoracic contents by evaluating the quality of sounds produced. Test procedure: There are two methods; direct and indirect. Over a bony prominence such as the clavicles percussion can be done directly. Over soft tissues firmly place your middle finger of your non dominant hand […]