Boutonniere finger deformity

Definition: Boutonniere finger deformity is the result of the rupture of the central band of the extensor tendon in the middle phalanx leading to hyperextension of the metacarpo-phalangeal joint and the distal inter-phalangeal joint and hyperflexion of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint. Causes: Boutonniere finger deformity is most often encountered in the hands of rheumatoid arthritis […]

Bicipital tendinitis

Definition: Inflammation of the long tendon of Biceps Brachii (b.b), and its enveloping sheath (tenosynovitis). Causes: The causes of bicipital tendinosis are subdivided into two categories; 1) subluxating tendon associated with a tear or laxity of the transverse humeral ligament, thereby allowing excessive motion of the long b.b tendon within the bicipital groove, 2) antero-superior […]

Tear of the lateral (calcaneofibular) ligament of the ankle

Definition: A partial or complete discontinuity in the connective tissue fibre matrix comprising the calcaneofibular ligament of the ankle. Causes: Causes of calcaneofibular ligament tears are very similar to those of anterior tibiofibular ligament, and injuries of the lateral ligaments of the ankle tend to involve both the aforementioned ligaments. Please refer to ‘Tear of […]

Tear of the lateral (talofibular) ligaments of the ankle

Definition: A partial or complete discontinuity in the connective tissue fibre matrix comprising the lateral ligaments of the ankle. Causes: There are numerous factors leading to the increased vulnerability if the lateral (talofibular) ligaments as opposed to their medial counterparts. Firstly: the fibula projects further distally than the tibia, thereby favouring ankle inversion, secondly: the […]

Tear of the medial or Deltoid ligaments of the ankle

Defintion: A partial or complete discontinuity in the connective tissue fibre matrix comprising the medial ligaments of the ankle. Causes: The medial ligaments of the ankle are far less frequently torn than their lateral counter-parts. Not only are the Deltoid ligaments tougher, but a series of biomechanical factors favours a tear of the lateral ankle […]

Dislocation of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint

Definition: Dislocation of the acromioclavicular joint occurs when there is a complete separation of the joint surfaces forming this articulation. Causes: The AC joint is held in place by the coraco-clavicular ligaments (conoid and trapezoid), the acromioclavicular ligaments and the joint capsule. Failure of these structures will result in a subluxation or dislocation of the […]

Acromioclavicular arthritis/arthrosis

Definition: Osteoarthrosis of the acromioclavicular joint characterised by articular cartilage loss and periarticular bone response. Causes: Acromioclavicular arthritis, is atypical in that it is present in a non weight-baring joint. Acromioclavicular arthritis may be primary: a process of ageing, or secondary: a result of trauma, and/or abnormal biomechanics. Acromioclavicular arthritis is most commonly found in […]

Achilles tendon tear

Definition: A partial or complete discontinuity in the connective tissue fibre matrix comprising the Achilles tendon. Causes: The most common cause of Achilles tendon tears result from mechanical stresses. The Achilles tendon is particularly vulnerable at its avascular portion and sports involving stop/start activities such as sprinting, basketball, tennis, and badminton are frequently associated with […]

Intervertebral disc prolapse – slipped-disc

Definition: A protrusion of the nucleus pulposus though a weakness in the annulus fibrosus. Causes: There are numerous bio-mechanisms which have been implicated in the development of disc prolapses. Prolapses tend to affect people aged twenty to fourty in whom the bones have ossified but where the intervertebral discs still have enough water content to […]

Baker’s or Popliteal Cyst

Definition: A benign swelling involving one or more of the popliteal bursae. Causes:  The most common cause of a Baker’s cyst is some sort of articular damage at the knee joint. When fluid accumulates and extravasates as a result of pathology or degeneration, this fluid has the potential to be retained in one of the […]

Test resource for MSK pathologies

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